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MLA Style Guide

A brief introduction to Modern Language Association (MLA) Style Citations.

Overview

In-text citations (or parenthetical citations) point your reader to specific entries on the Works Cited page.

They include the author or source name and the page number, if relevant.

In-text citations are used whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize information from a source. You can cite references either within the text or at the end of a sentence.

Variations: Example:
In-text citation at the end of a sentence: Some researchers strongly dispute the Committee’s conclusion (Smith and Jones 10).
Author name as part of a sentence: Smith and Jones dispute the Committee’s conclusion (10).
Source cited within another source:

Clark’s study (Smith and Jones 10) indicates that…

In this situation, your Works Cited page will contain the article by Smith and Jones. Clark is merely credited in the text of your paper.

For more information on how to incorporate source material into your paper, please see the following information:

In-text Citation Examples

Note: Do NOT highlight your in-text citations.

Highlighting is used to show the naming of these citations. The examples used here refer to the full citations shown on the Works Cited Page on this guide.

MLA In-text Citation examples highlighted

More Examples

One, or two authors: (Jones 7), (Dunn and Diaz 44)
Organization as an author:

(United States, Dept. of Labor 221)

Three or more authors: (Phipps et al. 45)
No page number: (Jones)
No author - use the first word of the source: (Infrastructure 3)
To clarify the author, if necessary: (N. Smith 9)
If you have used more than one work from same author: (Smith “Project” 194)
If information in a paragraph comes from different pages in the same work: (Smith 6, 8)
If the information comes from multiple sources: (Smith 6; Jones 55)
Plays: (Miller 9; act 1)
Identifying location in film or video: (Big Bang 00:03:16)
If a quotation appears at the end of a sentence: The Committee reportedstreet repairs are ongoing (Jones 52).

Adapted from the Pima Community College Library: PCC’s Guide to MLA 8th edition.

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